Chris Fuller

Is the EU an ecofriendly institution?

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For many of those on the left who support Britain's membership of the EU, environmental protection is an important factor. But the EU's pursuit of neoliberalism and its steadfast support for big farmers negate any positive noises it makes about carbon emissions, writes Chris Fuller.

Among those groups urging voters to stay in the EU in next month’s referendum are the Greens and Friends of the Earth (FoE). The Greens state, “It’s only by working with our European neighbours that we can tackle climate change, protect wildlife and reduce pollution.” FoE argue that the EU has created cleaner beaches and drinking water, reduced air pollution and protected wildlife. Both organisations enter some caveats. The FoE website is littered with accounts of EU environmental disasters. The Greens say that the EU needs to be reformed, saying it can be changed “for the common good”.

Forced to fight their war

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By early 1916 a flagging British war machine had to resort to conscription to round up enough men for the trenches of Europe. Chris Fuller looks at the machinations of the politicians and the resistance they faced.

One hundred years ago the British ruling class took a desperate gamble by introducing military conscription. The move was accompanied by huge opposition from below and spurred resistance to the war.

Soldiers revolt at Christmas

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The 1914 Christmas truce has been sanitised and commercialised. But as Chris Fuller explains, the generals were terrified of where it could lead, and resolved to crush any similar fraternisation.

In November 1914 Winston Churchill, then First Lord of the Admiralty, asked the question, “What would happen if the armies suddenly and simultaneously went on strike?” He was soon to find out.

The revolt by soldiers on all sides of the Western Front during and after Christmas 1914 was on a huge scale and took forms that represented a fundamental challenge to the ability of the high commands to conduct the war.

Fighting the war on the home front

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The claim of national unity during the First World War is a myth. The reality, argues Chris Fuller, was huge levels of repression by the British ruling class and a largely untold history of resistance.

The carnage of the First World War has been seen by many commentators as different from any conflict that went before. In fact there were hints as to how terrible a war between the rival imperial powers of the early 20th century might be. At the battle of Omdurman in 1898 the British had deployed the Maxim gun for the first time and slaughtered 10,800 Sudanese rebels. However, the war mindset was still that of the "cavalry charge"; few people envisaged the scale of the horror that was 1914-18.

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