The plight of the Kashmiris has long roots, stretching back to the end of Empire and the division of India after the Second World War.
Kashmir is the most militarised region on the planet. An estimated half a million Indian security personnel police a population of about 7 million.
About 80,000 have been killed in an insurgency against Indian rule. From 2016, shotguns filled with lead pellets have been used for “crowd control”, deliberately fired to blind civilian protesters. Stories of torture, rape and abduction abound among the mainly Muslim population.