France is intervening in two African countries, using troops and fighter aircraft to defend the regimes in Chad and the Central African Republic (CAR) from rebel forces. The interventions come without any debate in the French parliament.
There are about 1,300 French troops in Chad, following a conflict with Libya in the 1980s. They are now being used to assist the Chadian army, providing it with aerial reconnaissance, and transporting troops, medicine and weapons.
In the CAR, Mirage fighter planes were used last month to destroy rebel positions. The same planes were used in April last year to stop rebels entering Chad's capital, N'Djamena.